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GEOLOGY: REFERENCING

Referencing Basics

  • Referencing is the method of acknowledging the sources you have used while writing your assignment. It is an extremely important part of academic writing as it shows where your ideas have come from and gives credit to the authors whose work you have read.
  • By referencing properly you can avoid plagiarism, which is the passing off of other people's ideas as your own.

LinkedIn Learning video on referencing.

A reference also known as a citation - is an exact note of the source of a piece of information that you have referred to either directly or indirectly in your text. A typical reference or citation would include the following elements:

  • journal article - author / year of publication / title of the article / journal title /  volume, part, page nos.      
  • book - author/editor / year of publication / title / place of publication / publisher.

Online sources also need to include the URL and the date accessed

References need to be cited in two places –

  •  in an abbreviated form in the text  - in-text citation
  •  in full at the end of your work - reference list

A bibliography is a list of all the sources you have consulted but not necessarily referred to in your work.

There are many different referencing styles.

The most commonly used ones are: Harvard, APA, MHRA, Vancouver, Chicago.

For full guidance on how to reference your work, however, you should refer to the referencing guidelines and examples recommended for your course in your Student Handbook as different schools use different referencing styles.

endnote logo

EndNote is a software package that enables you to collect, store & organise references and create bibliographies in whichever referencing style you require (Harvard, Chicago, MHRA, APA etc.)

There are two versions of EndNote available: EndNote Desktop (currently EndNote X9) and a smaller online version of the package called EndNote Online. EndNote Desktop is installed on university computers for use by staff and students at the University of Brighton. You'll find it in 'applications' on the desktop . A free EndNote X9 download for your own personal devices (e.g. desktop and laptop) is also available for university staff and students from our EndNote software page

EndNote Online is the free web version of EndNote and can be used on any computer at home or on campus. 

To register for EndNote Online and for detailed instructions on using EndNote at the University of Brighton see our EndNote Guide. Quick links to our 'Getting started' booklets can be found below.

Getting started pdf guides

Please contact your library for help and advice on using EndNote. We also run workshops and small group tutorials on request.

    Mendeley is an alternative free online referencing software tool:mendeley logo

  • collect, store, organise & share references
  • store & annotate PDFs
  •  insert references into documents 
  • create bibliographies 
  • network with other researchers
  • discover research in your subject area

http://www.mendeley.com/guides/videos

There is also a desktop version and a premium version with extra features and storage.

 

* Please note that the University of Brighton doesn't offer support for Mendeley

zotero logoZotero is a free Firefox browser add-on that allows you to collect, manage, store and cite references. It's also available as a standalone programme which can be downloaded to use with Windows, Macs or Linux systems.

  • Annotate and organize research results, including video.
  • Create libraries and save searches, and share collections
  • Attach files, links, notes, and PDFs to records.
  • Store a screenshot of a web page.
  • Export information as formatted citations in word processing programs (Word, Open Office, Google Docs).
  • Tag and sort records and perform advanced searches

Referencing Guides

Cite Them Right is a comprehensive online guide on how to reference. It includes simplified advice on how to cite a huge range of materials from ancient texts to Twitter, and guidance on plagiarism and how to avoid it!

Examples are given in Harvard, APA, MHRA, MLA, OSCOLA, Chicago and Vancouver referencing styles

Remember that your school will provide you with a referencing guide. You must check that your bibliography and citations match your school's guide. If you are using this resource you may need to edit your references accordingly.

Access Cite them Right »

Zoterobib is a quick and easy way to create a reference list. It is free and requires no account creation. It contains over 9,000+ referencing styles including Harvard Cite them Right and Vancouver.

Remember that your school will provide you with a referencing guide. If you are using Zoterobib or any other referencing software you must check that your bibliography and citations match your school's guide. You may need to edit your references accordingly.

Access Zoterobib »

EndNote on YouTube

Search the EndNote YouTube channel for bitesize videos and full length training sessions on using all versions of EndNote.