A reference also known as a citation - is an exact note of the source of a piece of information that you have referred to either directly or indirectly in your text. A typical reference or citation would include the following elements:
Online sources also need to include the URL and the date accessed
References need to be cited in two places –
A bibliography is a list of all the sources you have consulted but not necessarily referred to in your work.
There are many different referencing styles.
The most commonly used ones are: Harvard, APA, MHRA, Vancouver, Chicago.
For full guidance on how to reference your work, however, you should refer to the referencing guidelines and examples recommended for your course in your Student Handbook as different schools use different referencing styles.
Cite Them Right is a comprehensive online guide on how to reference. It includes simplified advice on how to cite a huge range of materials from ancient texts to Twitter, and guidance on plagiarism and how to avoid it!
Examples are given in Harvard, APA, MHRA, MLA, OSCOLA, Chicago and Vancouver referencing styles
Remember that your school will provide you with a referencing guide. You must check that your bibliography and citations match your school's guide. If you are using this resource you may need to edit your references accordingly.Access Cite them Right »
EndNote is a software package that enables you to collect, store & organise references and create bibliographies in whichever referencing style you require (Harvard, Chicago, MHRA, APA etc.)
There are two versions of EndNote available: EndNote Desktop (currently EndNote 20) and a smaller online version of the package called EndNote Online. EndNote Desktop is installed on university computers for use by staff and students at the University of Brighton. You'll find it in 'applications' on the desktop . A free EndNote 20 download for your own personal devices (e.g. desktop and laptop) is also available for university staff and students from our EndNote software page
EndNote Online is the free web version of EndNote and can be used on any computer at home or on campus.
To register for EndNote Online and for detailed instructions on using EndNote at the University of Brighton see our EndNote Guide.
Mendeley is an alternative free online referencing software tool:
There is also a desktop version and a premium version with extra features and storage.
* Please note that the University of Brighton doesn't offer support for Mendeley
Zotero is a free Firefox browser add-on that allows you to collect, manage, store and cite references. It's also available as a standalone programme which can be downloaded to use with Windows, Macs or Linux systems.